In developing nations, like the United States, it accounts for approximately three percent of the total crop area.
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Cotton is manufactured for different reasons such as meeting people's basic wants and needs, distributing to achieve foreign exchange, or manufacturing textiles for exports Better Essays words 5 pages. It was expensive to create goods, so people depended on trade. Since the market revolution, there has been a change in transportation, industrialization, and urbanization. Market Revolution was beneficial to every region in the states. The northeastern states became more industrialized and urban, the southern states gained more cotton and slavery benefits, and the western states became the new nation and improved in transportation and communication Better Essays words 1.
Economies are failing in numerous countries, and developing nations struggle to feed their inhabitants. However, modern science has provided a solution: agricultural biotechnology. Genetically engineered crops represent the bright future of agriculture. Crops like cotton, corn, and soybeans can have genes inserted or deleted into their cell membranes; this modification facilitates pest and virus resistance, drought tolerance, and even provides nutritional enhancement GMO was made when a scientist took a crop and transferred the genes from another plant or bacteria to change things about the original crop.
Once they are together the newer modified plant will fight against diseases, drought, or certain types of bugs. The gene is inserted by putting it artificially together and cutting the plant open you want to change. Changes are something that can not be found in nature or in the process of cross breeding plants Better Essays words 2.
Genetic search reveals key to resistance in global cotton pest
However, since the first generation of genetically modified crops, there have emerged two areas of concern with regard to the risks the crops pose to both the human life and the environment. This paper thus seeks to define genetically modified crops, question the reason for making GMs and weigh the benefits against the risks Better Essays words 3. An oligopoly market might have dozens or even hundreds of individual firms but most of them are unimportant in the industry; a small number of them—perhaps only 2 to 20 firms—dominate the industry.
Better Essays words 4. This was the time where we really tested out our new power and worked on expansion, rather than survival or rebuilding. At the time many citizens considered it the golden age. In the most recent study undertaken in Andhra Pradesh, the yield of Bt cotton is reported to be 30 per cent higher than that of non-Bt cotton ibid. Secondly, most studies show that returns or incomes to farmers were higher from the cultivation of Bt than from non-Bt cotton.
Reviewing the earlier studies, Rao and Mahendra Dev note that the percentage increase in profits ranged between 69 to 88 per cent; in their most recent study, however, they estimate a per cent increase in profit when a farmer shifts from other cotton to Bt cotton. A very big rise in profits was also observed in the study of Tamil Nadu Table 1. There are, of course, variations across States. Gandhi and Namboodiri found that of the four States in their study, returns were the highest in Maharashtra. Naik et al. AC Nielsen Narayanamoorthy and Kalamkar Gandhi and Namboodiri Mahendra Dev and Rao with and without.
Rao and Mahendra Dev after adoption. We have excluded papers based on data from field trials. Thirdly, in terms of the costs of specific inputs, all studies state that the expenditure on pesticides and insecticides is lower for Bt cotton than for other varieties of cotton, as is the actual quantity of chemicals applied. For example, according to Mahendra Dev and Rao , costs of insecticides were lower by 18 per cent for Bt farmers than for non-Bt farmers.
The amount of insecticide use was reduced by 50 per cent on Bt plots according to Qaim et al. A reduction in the use of chemicals, it is argued, can bring health and environmental benefits. We have data from cultivator households in one cotton-growing rainfed village of Maharashtra, surveyed in as part of a larger research project, Project on Agrarian Relations in India PARI.
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We collected detailed information on land ownership and operation; on crop cultivation; on costs and labour use by operation crop and season; and on asset ownership, indebtedness, and other household variables. In this paper, we use the data on costs and incomes to examine the returns from cotton cultivation. While data from one village can only be illustrative, we have the advantage of observations on all cultivators in a given location, and the advantage that the authors themselves were part of the survey team.
Two other village-level studies of the costs and profits from cotton cultivation have recently been conducted in Maharashtra: a study of Dongargon village Ramakumar, Raut, and Kumar and one of Kanzara village Subramanian and Qaim Both villages are in Akola district, which neighbours our study area, in Buldhana district. We discuss the findings from these two studies alongside our results in the third section of this paper. In , we conducted a detailed census-type household survey in Warwat Khanderao, a village in the unirrigated cotton-growing tracts of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra.
India is the third largest producer of cotton in the world, and the state of Maharashtra has the highest acreage under cotton in India. In —07, 3. Cotton in India is grown mainly on small holdings. Most of the cotton in Maharashtra is cultivated on unirrigated or rainfed land only 4. Maharashtra accounted for 20 per cent of national production in — Cotton cultivation is typically on black soils. The nearest town is Shegaon, which is 20 kilometres from the village.
At our survey, there were households with a population of 1, persons at the Census of , the population was 1, in the village.
Essay on The Benefits of BT Cotton -- Genetically Modified Cotton
The literacy level of persons aged seven and above was 74 per cent, with a male literacy rate of 83 per cent and female literacy rate of 66 per cent. The major caste in the village was Kunbi 43 per cent of all households. Agriculture is the main occupation of residents, with 69 per cent of workers reported to be cultivators and another 15 per cent reported to be agricultural labourers Census of India The remaining 16 per cent of workers included non-agricultural manual workers, and workers in business and services.
The pattern of ownership of land shows that 25 per cent of households did not operate any agricultural land Table 2. Thirty per cent of operational holdings can be characterized as marginal farms of less than 2.
Thus, 53 per cent of farms were small holdings of up to 5 acres. The median extent of household land ownership was 3. The biggest landowner in the village owned 85 acres. Kunbis accounted for 43 per cent of the village households but owned 65 per cent of the land held by residents. Warwat Khanderao is a predominantly agricultural village. Of the households surveyed, obtained some income from crop production.
The mean annual income from crop cultivation in —07 was Rs 35, per household the median was Rs 15, at current prices. Crop incomes accounted for 42 per cent of the incomes of resident households, making agriculture a major source of income. If we take the major landowning caste, Kunbis, we find that 83 per cent of households received incomes from crop production, and such incomes accounted for 49 per cent of their total household incomes. Table 2 Distribution of operational land - holding , Warwat Khanderao village, , in acres and per cent.
The major crop cultivated in was cotton, both Bt and non-Bt varieties. The area under cotton accounted for 77 per cent of gross cropped area Table 3. Other crops grown included green gram, black gram, red gram, jowar, groundnut, sunflower, sesamum, maize, and wheat. Cotton was cultivated in the kharif season, that is, from June—July to October—November, and was intercropped mainly with green gram, black gram and red gram. A few cultivators raised wheat during the rabi season, that is, from November—December to February.
Cultivation was mainly rainfed, although a few cultivators used borewells for irrigating the crop. There are three features of cropping pattern and farming practices that we shall highlight here. First, several varieties of cotton, Bt and non-Bt, were grown in Warwat Khanderao in the same crop year, — While all studies on the economics of Bt cotton have categorized cotton into two types: Bt and non-Bt termed local or conventional or traditional , a three-way categorization — Bt cotton, premium branded non-Bt cotton, and local non-Bt cotton — was more appropriate to the context that we studied.
The prices of packets of Bt cotton seeds of different brands were between Rs and Rs per packet. In contrast, premium non-Bt seeds were normally sold in packets of grams, at Rs to Rs per packet. Local non-Bt seeds were either recycled from home production or purchased in unpackaged form at Rs 25 to Rs 60 per kilogram. Local non-Bt cotton seeds were thus much cheaper than premium non-Bt cotton seeds. In this context, a two-fold categorization into Bt and non-Bt would result in clubbing high-yielding non-Bt hybrids together with traditional varieties or older hybrids, and this can be misleading if used to establish the superiority of Bt over other seeds.
Table 3 Gross cropped area under various crops, — 07, Warwat Khanderao village, by crop , in acres. Premium non-Bt cotton intercropped with other crops. Local non-Bt cotton intercropped with other crops. Sorghum Jowar. Secondly, cotton, including Bt cotton, was grown on separate plots as well as intercropped with other crops.
The area under inter-cropping was 65 per cent of gross cropped area and nearly 80 per cent of the area under cotton. In fact, acres or hectares , accounting for According to the Handbook of Agriculture , inter-cropping or strip-cropping is the traditional practice with cotton cultivation in many parts of Central and South India ICAR Most commonly, rows of cotton were alternated with rows of green gram, black gram, and, in some cases, sorghum. A few rows of red gram were also commonly planted in between. Crops were usually sown in June—July.
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Green gram and black gram were harvested in August—September when the cotton bushes were still young. Cotton was picked between October and January. Red gram was harvested in January—February after all the cotton had been harvested. Since cotton bushes grow substantially in size, they need to be planted with a space of about 4 feet between rows. Inter-cropping with cotton is particularly economical because in the early stages of plant growth, when the bushes are small and flowering has not yet started, short-duration crops like green gram, black gram, and sorghum can be grown in between the rows without reducing the density of cotton bushes.
These leguminous plants also helped nitrogen fixation in the soil. All cultivators maintained the traditional practice of inter-cropping cotton with pulses even after the introduction of Bt cotton. Nevertheless, the proportion of land under inter-cropping was negatively related to farm size Table 5.
In Warwat Khanderao, among marginal and small farms, over 90 per cent of the cotton crop was intercropped with pulses; the proportion fell to 61 per cent for cultivators with over 20 acres. This is not surprising, given that pulses and jowar were mainly grown for self-consumption. Conversely, of the total area under stand-alone Bt cotton, 69 per cent was cultivated by households with more than 10 acres of operational land, that is, by relatively large farmers, and only 4 per cent by households with less than 2. Thirdly, Bt cotton was grown by both small and large cultivators.
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