As students of neoclassicism sought to tap into the wisdom of the ancients, a large focus of literary efforts turned to the revival of old texts. Satire and The Mock-Epic. The prevalence of both satire and the Mock-Epic in 18th Century British literature reflect ancient influences accrued from classical education.
Juvenal was a Roman poet who, like many of his contemporaries in the first and second centuries, authored a number of satirical works. Eighteenth Century writers such as Jonathon Swift and Alexander Pope often took the idea of the epic and combined it with satire to create a Mock-Epic.
The emergence and popularity of satire and the mock-epic through works such as The Rape of the Lock by Pope reflect the prevalence of classical influence in society as it became widespread through education. The chart below depicts the similarities and differences of the mock-epic of 18th century Britain and the ancient epics of Greece :.
Bolgar, R. Clarke, M. Classical Education in Britain,. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cody, D. July Huber, A.
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University of Oxford. Johnson, S. Lynch, J. Rutgers University. Mahoney, John L. He was a convert to Catholicism and his novels explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. Anthony Burgess is especially remembered for his dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange Mervyn Peake —68 published his Gothic fantasy Gormenghast trilogy between and Angela Carter — was a novelist and journalist, known for her feminist , magical realism , and picaresque works.
Writing from the s until the s. Rushdie achieved fame with Midnight's Children His most controversial novel The Satanic Verses was inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. She initially wrote about her African experiences. Lessing soon became a dominant presence in the English literary scene, publishing frequently, and won the Nobel Prize for Literature in Sir V. Naipaul — was another immigrant, born in Trinidad, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
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Also from the West Indies is George Lamming — who wrote In the Castle of My Skin , while from Pakistan came Hanif Kureshi — , a playwright, screenwriter, filmmaker, novelist and short story writer. Martin Amis is one of the most prominent British novelists of the end of the 20th, beginning of the 21st century. Pat Barker — has won many awards for her fiction.
English novelist and screenwriter Ian McEwan — is a highly regarded writer. An important cultural movement in the British theatre that developed in the late s and early s was Kitchen sink realism or "kitchen sink drama" , art, novels, film, and television plays. It used a style of social realism which depicts the domestic lives of the working class, to explore social issues and political issues.
The Theatres Act abolished the system of censorship of the stage that had existed in Great Britain since The new freedoms of the London stage were tested by Howard Brenton 's The Romans in Britain , first staged at the National Theatre during , and subsequently the focus of an unsuccessful private prosecution in Dennis Potter 's most distinctive dramatic work was produced for television.
During the s and s many major British playwrights either effectively began their careers with the BBC, or had works adapted for radio. Many major British playwrights in fact, either effectively began their careers with the BBC, or had works adapted for radio, including Caryl Churchill and Tom Stoppard whose "first professional production was in the fifteen-minute Just Before Midnight programme on BBC Radio, which showcased new dramatists".
While poets T. Eliot, W. Auden and Dylan Thomas were still publishing after , new poets started their careers in the s and s including Philip Larkin —85 The Whitsun Weddings , and Ted Hughes —98 The Hawk in the Rain , Northern Ireland has produced a number of significant poets, the most famous being Nobel prize winner Seamus Heaney. However, Heaney regarded himself as Irish and not British. In the s and s Martian poetry aimed to break the grip of 'the familiar', by describing ordinary things in unfamiliar ways, as though, for example, through the eyes of a Martian.
Poets most closely associated with it are Craig Raine and Christopher Reid. Martin Amis , an important novelist in the late twentieth and twentieth centuries, carried into fiction this drive to make the familiar strange. Leading poets associated with this movement include J. It reacted to the more conservative group called " The Movement ". Their work was a self-conscious attempt at creating an English equivalent to the Beats. Tony Harrison — , who explores the medium of language and the tension between native dialect in his case, that of working-class Leeds and acquired language,  and Simon Armitage.
Geoffrey Hill — has been considered to be among the most distinguished English poets of his generation,   Charles Tomlinson — is another important English poet of an older generation, though "since his first publication in , has built a career that has seen more notice in the international scene than in his native England.
Development of Prose in 17th-18th Century
Roald Dahl is a prominent author of children's fantasy novels , like Charlie and the Chocolate Factory in , which are often inspired from experiences from his childhood, with often unexpected endings, and unsentimental, dark humour. Rowling 's Harry Potter fantasy series is a sequence of seven novels that chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter is the best selling book-series in history. The series has been translated into 67 languages,   placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history.
Scotland has in the late 20th century produced several important novelists, including James Kelman who like Samuel Beckett can create humour out of the most grim situations; A. Highly anglicised Lowland Scots is often used in contemporary Scottish fiction, for example, the Edinburgh dialect of Lowland Scots used in Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh to give a brutal depiction of the lives of working class Edinburgh drug users.
Among significant writers in this genre in the early twentieth-century were Erskine Childers ' The Riddle of the Sands , who wrote spy novels , Emma Orczy Baroness Orczy author of The Scarlet Pimpernel , an historical romance which recounted the adventures of a member of the English gentry in the French Revolutionary period.
The title character established the notion of a "hero with a secret identity " into popular culture. John Buchan wrote adventure novels like Prester John Novels featuring a gentleman adventurer were popular between the wars, exemplified by the series of H. The medieval scholar M. James wrote highly regarded ghost stories in contemporary settings.
This was called 'the Golden Age of Detective Fiction '. Dame Agatha Christie , a writer of crime novels, short stories and plays, is best remembered for her 80 detective novels and her successful West End theatre plays.
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Other female writers dubbed "Queens of crime" include Dorothy L. Georgette Heyer created the historical romance genre, and also wrote detective fiction. A major work of science fiction, from the early 20th century, is A Voyage to Arcturus by Scottish writer David Lindsay , first published in ,  and was a central influence on C.
Lewis 's Space Trilogy. From the early s to late s, an informal literary discussion group associated with the English faculty at the University of Oxford were The Inklings. Its leading members were the major fantasy novelists; J. Tolkien and C. Among important writers of genre fiction in the second half of the twentieth-century are thriller writer Ian Fleming , creator of James Bond Fleming chronicled Bond's adventures in twelve novels, including Casino Royale Frederick Forsyth writes thriller novels and Ken Follett writes spy thrillers as well as historical novels, notably The Pillars of the Earth The murder mysteries of both Ruth Rendell and P.
James are popular crime fiction. John Wyndham wrote post-apocalyptic science fiction, his most notable works being The Day of the Triffids , and The Midwich Cuckoos Other important writers in this genre are Sir Arthur C.
Moorcock was involved with the 'New Wave' of science fiction writers "part of whose aim was to invest the genre with literary merit"  Similarly J. Ballard — "became known in the s as the most prominent of the 'New Wave' science fiction writers". Banks who created a fictional anarchist, socialist, and utopian society the Culture. Nobel prize winner Doris Lessing also published a sequence of five science fiction novels the Canopus in Argos : Archives between and Sir Terry Pratchett is best known for his Discworld series of comic fantasy novels, that begins with The Colour of Magic , and includes Night Watch Philip Pullman 's is famous for his fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials , which follows the coming-of-age of two children as they wander through a series of parallel universes against a backdrop of epic events.
While Neil Gaiman is a writer of both science fiction, and fantasy including Stardust Douglas Adams is known for his five-volume science fiction comedy series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Milne , Winnie-the-Pooh , and P. Travers ' Mary Poppins. Prolific children's author Enid Blyton chronicled the adventures of a group of young children and their dog in The Famous Five.
Mary Norton wrote The Borrowers , featuring tiny people who borrow from humans. In Kent. The perceived success and promotion of genre fiction authors from Scotland provoked controversy in when James Kelman criticised, in a speech at the Edinburgh International Book Festival , the attention afforded to "upper middle-class young magicians" and "detective fiction" by the "Anglocentric" Scottish literary establishment.
The theatrical landscape has been reconfigured, moving from a single national theatre at the end of the twentieth-century to four as a result of the devolution of cultural policy. Original literature continues to be promoted by institutions such as the Eisteddfod in Wales and the Welsh Books Council. The Royal Society of Edinburgh includes literature within its sphere of activity. Literature Wales is the Welsh national literature promotion agency and society of writers,  which administers the Wales Book of the Year award.
The imported eisteddfod tradition in the Channel Islands encouraged recitation and performance, a tradition that continues today. Formed in , the Cheltenham Literature Festival is the longest-running festival of its kind in the world.
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