Similarly, oral history utilizes interviews to understand the lived experiences of people during a particular period in history, or who witnessed an event of historical relevance. Artists, of all kinds, are often interviewed after they have produced a piece of work that has been very well received, or which has recently been created or released. Oftentimes, the interviewer asks questions about the deeper levels of the art work, the inspiration behind it, and what the artist has planned for their next piece.
Interviews can be audio recordings, face to face interviews, video recordings or telephone recordings. Sometimes, you may consider email or written correspondence as a form of interview, but not always, and you must specify your intention at the outset. Interviews that are published are often edited by the interviewer, to steer the interviewee's answers, or for brevity or clarity.
This leads us onto whether an interview is considered a primary or secondary source.
It is important to remember that only the raw interview is a primary source. This means the unedited audio or video recording are primary sources. If you edit the interview in any way, the final version is not a primary source. The lack of clear guides to analysis further suggests that reporting on interviewing is not comprehensive. Researchers should consider whether they have the skills and resources to design, conduct and analyse interviews carefully, so that key stages are carefully considered in the interview process.
Researchers could use this checklist to guide decision making and subsequent reporting for each key stage. For data gathering, to ensure robustness and credibility, the sampling of interviewees must be justified. When selecting a sample, therefore, researchers must be able to show that they have consulted the full range of views needed to answer the questions adequately.
Greater transparency is needed with the inclusion of information such as the reason for inclusion and response rate. It is insufficient, for example, to describe a snowballing method without including the reason why each additional participant was recommended and targeted.
Supplementary material may be used to keep within word count restrictions. This is information that researchers are expected to collect during interviews. Journals will need to provide clear guidance to submitting authors about these requirements, including best practice guides on specific considerations.
One such area in need of clear guidance from journals is on ethical matters, which may not be familiar to conservation researchers. Here, we suggest that journals follow the recommendations provided by St. They argue that all conservation and ecology journals should provide clear ethical guidelines, require an ethics statement and ensure submitted papers on human research are scrutinised with the same rigour as ecological science.
This review provides an overview of some of the places and ways in which interviews have been used in research on conservation decision making. While the review highlights a number of concerns, it also provides a basis for recommendations to strengthen the interview methodology for future applications in conservation. Data used came from a structured review of papers shown in Appendices 2 and 3.
These materials, including the protocol used for data selection Appendix S1 ; Young et al. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
Conducting research interviews | Emerald Insight
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Incorporating Interview Data
David C. Rose Corresponding Author E-mail address: dcrose gmail. Correspondence David C. Rose Email: dcrose gmail. Hannah S. Christina J. Kerrie A. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.
Abstract Interviews are a widely used methodology in conservation research. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint.
Amano, T. Languages are still a major barrier to global science. PLoS Biology , 14 , e Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Volume 9 , Issue 1 Special Feature: Qualitative methods for eliciting judgements for decision making January Pages Figures References Related Information.
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Indeed, a patient may even cry because they are saying something powerful, even if that something is positive. Participant story telling can be an extremely positive but also emotionally challenging feature of interviewing the seriously ill, in particular in the home setting. Researchers should not presume that the patient does not wish to continue with the interview in the case of distress, nor take the paternalistic stance to make that decision on the patient's behalf. Participants should instead be asked whether they feel able to continue with conversation. This is a common experience among the researchers, perhaps unsurprisingly given the nature of the patient population.
Interviewing couples together can have its distinct advantages but it also presents challenges 34 , 35 which can be particularly pertinent in this context. Consensus points and strategies:. It is considered appropriate for companions to participate in interviews subject to the preferences of the participant , but researchers should ensure that informed consent to use their data is taken from the companion.
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